In Celebration of the Human Voice - The Essential Musical Instrument
If you weren't into harmony, you probably wouldn't be on the Primarily A Cappella website, so we'd be preaching to the choir (pun not intended) if we tried to explain just how beautiful, how wonderful, harmony singing is. So if you want to learn how to do it right, well, you've come to the right place! Read the theories of Western harmony, learn how to harmonize in multiple musical styles (contemporary, barbershop and more), and then hear or watch it on accompanying tapes & CDs/DVDs.
Displaying 1-28 of 28 items.
Elisabeth Howard : ABCs of Vocal Harmony
Review: No prior music knowledge required. Nuts and bolts music theory course with hundreds of ear-training exercises.Here's a course that will sharpen your sense of pitch and enable you to sing harmony with the best professionals. Includes sing-a-long exercises where you fill in the missing note in an interval or chord. Topics included are: Scales - major, minor, blues, pentatonic, chromatic, whole tone, and modes; Intervals - all intervals are included in this section; Chords - major, minor, diminished, augmented, 7th chords, dominant, add 9 chords, 6th chords; Rhythm & Meter - time signatures, simple rhythms, dotted rhythms, triplets, syncopation; Charts & Transpositions.. Unique feature: how to harmonize with other singers. You'll hear a well trained duo who sing two notes and then ask you to add the third note. Slowly, your note fades to test your pitch. Great training for a any harmony group singer. 4 CDs and book
Songlist: Acknowledgements, Preface, Scales, Additional Exercises, Worksheet Exercises and Exam, Intervals, Additional Exercises, Worksheet Exercises and Exam, Chords and Harmony, Additional Exercises, Worksheet Exercises and Exam, Rhythm and Meter, Additional Exercises, Worksheet Exercises and Exam, Charts/Sheet Music, Major and Minor Scales, Selected Bibliography, Glossary of Musical Terms, Index
Mike Campbell : Harmony Vocals - The Essential Guide
Review: Finally! The rudiments of harmony explained and demonstrated in this easy-to-use and understand songbook and accompanying tutorial CD. Brought to you by the Musician's Institute, this concise guide contains a wealth of information all in one convenient reference. Beginning with an overview of intervals and chord construction (with accompanying exercises), the book then guides the singer through 18 "Songbites,"practice pieces where each three-part harmony arrangement is broken down so that the parts can be rehearsed individually. Other sections include "Tips and Techniques,"a truly practical introduction to singing style, particularly as it applies to harmony vocals-things like how to hear your part and stay on it. The last chapter focuses on sight-singing and chart-reading. "Harmony Vocals"is recommended for any beginning/intermediate harmony singer.
Songlist: Harmony Vocals, Essential Guide, Part 1: Getting Started, How To Read Music, Scales, Intervals, Chords, Building Harmonies, Part 2: Tips & Techniques, Cohesiveness of the Backing Vocal, Vocal Effects, Practice and Rehearsal, Part 3:Songbites (For Practicing 3 Part Harmony), Doh-Dee-Doh, Don't Get a Tattoo, London Traffic, Tell Your Mama, Don't Be So Good, Go Walk the Dog, Find My Way, We Can Make It, Ooh, Baby, Doo-ee-ooh, Hoo Hoo Hoo, You'll Have My Love, The Good Vibes, Dance, Dance, Dance, Katmandu, Business Suit, I Pay My Taxes, Country Ahs, and more
Susan Mazer : Harmony Singing
Review: If you've ever wondered how to create a vocal harmony part, this book is the perfect place to start. Susan Mazer teaches the basics of theory, how to listen to other parts as you sing, the easy way to make your own arrangements and more. You can try out what you learn with songs in traditional, folk, sacred and popular styles, and explore the key composers, singers and groups who shaped the history of harmony singing.The included CD lets you hear the various types of harmony and sing along with examples in the book.
Songlist: Introduction, Getting Started, Music Theory for Vocalists, Time to Sing, Two-Part Harmony, Three-Part Harmony, Four-Part Harmony, Creating and Practicing Vocal Harmony, Creating Vocal Harmony Arrangements, Vocal Music History and Artists, Glossary of Musical Terms
Arnie Berle : Theory and Harmony for the Contemporary Musician
Review: From the fundamentals to advanced concepts, Arnie Berle guides today's musician to a working knowledge of music theory and harmony. Here you will find answers to all your questions about intervals, scales, chords, progressions, chord embellishment and substitution, song forms and more. This is a practical guide covering everything from the fundamentals of sound and music notation to popular song forms and chord scales for improvisation.
Songlist: Fundamentals of Sound: Musical Notation, Half Steps/Whole Steps/Major Keys, Minor Scales, Intervals, Triads/Chords, Modes of the Major Scale, Sixth Chords/Seventh Chords, Harmonic Movement/The Cycle/Progression/Key Centers, Form - The American Pop Song/The Blues, Reharmonization/Embellishing Chords/Fill-In Chords, Extended Chords/Altered Chords/Approach Chords, Introduction/Endings/Turnarounds, Harmonic Minor Scale/Jazz Minor Scale, Minor-Key Chord Progressions, Diminished Seventh Chords/Augmented Chords/Suspensions, Chords and their Improvising Scales, Pentatonic Scales
Barbershop Harmony Society : Basic Group Singing Techniques
Review: This book focuses on 10 main skill areas of basic singing techniques with simple exercises to develop each skill. It is a basic, to the point, review of the primary elements of proper vocal technique for group singing. It is written primarily in layman's terms and is intended primarily for the amateur singer.
Songlist: Posture, Breathing, Pitch, Warm Up, Balance, Blends, Vowels, Consonants, Word Sounds, The Performance
Barbershop Harmony Society : Sound For Ensemble Singing
Review: An excellent resource, this book offers a scientific approach to achieving a good blend in ensemble singing. While geared towards barbershop singing, the material can be applied to all styles of vocal harmony. This very informative book comes with a glossary for highlighted terms throughout the text.
Songlist: The Nature of Voiced Sound, Loudness , Pitch, Harmonic Structure, Difference, Undertones, Formants and Vowel Sounds, The Ingredients of Expanded Sound, Proper Volume Relationships, Vocal Quality, How To Improve Expanded Sound, Posture and Positioning, Rehearsal, Stage Presence
Barbershop Harmony Society : Theory of Barbershop Harmony
Review: This definitive analysis of the harmonic structure of barbershop music is an in-depth study describing the uniqueness of barbershop harmony. Beginner and experienced alike will gain more insight into our music after a careful reading and examination of the material included in this manual.
Songlist: Building Chords, Naming Scale Degrees and Chords, Chord Progression, Chords Used in Barbershop Harmonization, Review of Triads and Chords, More on Chords, Chords Not Used in Barbershop, Type of Thirteenth Chord Used in Barbershop
Cathy Fink, Marcy Marxer, Robin and Linda Williams : Learn To Sing Harmony
Review: Now that these popular lessons are on CD, it's easier than ever to join in and make beautiful vocal music. Find the song or part you are learning with the simple push of a button, and start harmonizing! If you're a complete beginner you'll learn the theory behind harmony singing and get the ear training you'll need to develop your style. If you already have some knowledge, these four wonderful singers will help you hone your skills, increase your repertoire and gain new techniques and insights into singing with others. The vocal parts, for duet, trio and quartet singing, are recorded on separate channels to allow you to try out your harmonies with Cathy, Marcy, Robin and Linda.
Songlist: Basics of Harmony, Down By The Riverside, Bury Me Beneath The Willow, Red River Valley, Long Journey Home, Good Old Mountain Dew, Hand Me Down My Walking Cane, Additional song lyrics, Careless Love, Trouble In Mind, Leavin' Train, Down In The Valley, Turtle Dove, Little Darlin' Pal Of Mine, Gold Watch And Chain, Keep On the Sunny Side, Blues Stay Away From Me, Amazing Grace, Goodnight, Irene, Stay All Night
Chris and Carole Beatty : Complete Blend
Review: Complete Blend will help you learn to merge your sound with others and to sing as a team, not a group of individuals. Helps establish habits of good blend for a lifetime.
Songlist: Introduction, Defining Blend, Foundations, Tone, Active Listening, Inflection, Style, Rhythm, Tempo, Dynamics, Diction, Vibrato, Stay In Your Rage, Final Thought, Example 1 - "Holy Spirit Bequeathed By Christ", Example 2 - "Come To My Heart", 4 Part Doo Wah, 4 Part Nu, 4 Part Nee Yah, 2 Part Hum Ye Oh Me, 2 Part Staccato (Rhythmic Unity), 4 Part Tone (Color), Unison Me May Me Mah me, etc., Unison (Dynamics), 2 Part SATB (Interplay and Balance), Unison (Imitative/Self Awareness), 2 Part Wah-nah-nah, Breathing Bonus Section, Mum, mum, mum, He, he, he, he
Darlene Rogers with Dale Syverson, Peggy Gram : Ensemble Vocal Skills
Review: "Sing, Baby, Sing!" Edition VI "Ensemble Vocal Skills" is divided into two sections. The first half of the CD has three vocal exercises for lead, baritone, bass and tenor. If you sing them all then you will have warmed up your voice from high to low and will be ready to sing with your ensemble. The second half of the CD are exercises for ensemble for pitch, resonance, vowels and breath. When you have learned one part, switch and sing another.
Songlist: Relax Exercises, Breathing Exercises, Individual Exercises, Pitch Exercises, Resonance Exercises
Eric Salzman & Michael Sahl : Making Changes: A Practical Guide To Vernacular Harmony
Review: Countless musical examples and a running text guide the reader through using chords and changes to create musical arrangements for folk, rock, pop and jazz. Includes information on blues and modal harmony changes, how melody makes harmony, harmonizing a minor melody, and much more.
Songlist: Making Changes 1: Blues And Modal Harmony Changes, Basics, Basic Chords And Basic Changes, Making Changes II: How Melody Makes Harmony, Middle Chords And Middle Changes, Making Changes III: Harmonizing A Minor Melody, Advanced Chords And Advanced Changes
Frederick Horwood : Basis of Harmony
Review: Harmony is the art of writing successive chords for voices or instruments in such a way that the music produced is acceptable to the ear. In Horwood's The Basis of Harmony, you will get a comprehensive look at the theory of Western Harmony. This book emphasizes the importance of learning how to "hear with your eyes," and helps you attain the skills to do just that. Through lessons on triads, figured bass, cadences, modulations, suspensions, and much more, the reader is sure to gain a greater understanding of basic music theory. This book is a must for a beginning composer or someone who just wants to learn more about the intellectual side of music.
Songlist: Introduction to Harmony, Triads in Root Position, Chord Progressions Using Primary Triads, Cadences, Secondary Triads, First Inversions of Triads, Harmonization of Melodies, Passing Notes, Two- and Three-part Harmony, Second Inversions of Triads, Dominant Seventh Chords, Other Unessential Notes, Modulation, Secondary Sevenths, Dominant Discords, Suspensions, Chromatic Sevenths and Ninths, Chromatic Sixths, Extraneous Modulation, Harmonization of Basses
Gerald Eskelin : Components of Vocal Blend
Review: Can vocal groups having a mixture of talent levels achieve a stunning blend? In Geral Eskelin's opinion, it is not so much a difference in vocal training that prevents vocal blend but rather the mutual disregard for blend and/or the lack of techniques necessary to achieve it. The primary purpose of this book, then, is to identity the elements that contribute to a beautiful choral sound and to provide methods and exercises by which to explore them. The suggestion and ideas ate based on Dr. Eskelin's five decade of experience working with singing groups - both amateur and profession. The exercises are applicable to a wide variety of musical styles - from barbershop quartet to opera chorus - from the theater to the cathedral. Solo singers, as well, will find techniques to enhance the artistry and professionalism of their performances.
Songlist: Blend and Blendability, Approach and Method, Vocal Concepts and Vocabulary, Vowel, Brightness, Resonance, Nasality, Pitch, Density, Loudness, Phrasing, Consensus, "Expressive Tuning"
Haasemann & James Jordan : Group Vocal Technique
Review: Dedicate to Wilhelm Ehmann, This book is the first effort to organize the teaching of Group Vocal Technique into a method for providing vocal instruction to "amateur" choirs. This book has a two-fold purpose: (1) to provide documentation of "Group Vocal Technique" and serve as the first source of such an approach to vocal education and (2) to provide the choral conductor with a practical resource of written materials that can be used with choirs. Frauke Hasseman is a Professor of Conducting at Westminster Choir College in Princeton, New Jersey. She is recognized as one of the world's experts in the field of Group Vocal Technique. James M. Jordan is Associate professor of Conducting at the Westminster Choir College in Princeton, New Jersey. He is conductor of the Westminster Chapel Choir.
Songlist: Group Vocal Technique: Pedagogical Organization, Group Vocal Technique: Teaching Procedures, Relaxation and Posture, Building Spaciousness in the Voice, Breathing, The Anatomy of the Sigh, Resonance and Placement, Dynamics, Crescendo/Decrescendo, messa di voce, Register Consistency, Range Extension, Leaps, Legato, Staccato, Martellato, English Diction Fundamentals and The Five Pure Vowels, Latin Diction Fundamentals, German diction Fundamentals, Vowel Modification, Marking the Score, Auditioning Singers, Seating/Standing Plans to Enhance Choral Performance and Group Vocal Technique, Selection of Literature, Conduction Technique, Summary
Haasemann & James Jordan : The Choral Ensemble Warm-Up
Review: This instructional DVD contains four master teachers who conduct eight complete wam-ups with their ensembles. More than fifty exercises are presented on this 75-minute video, and they are usable for choral ensembles at any level.Exercises for teaching relaxation, posture, breathing, exhalation, inhalation, support, resonance, legato, staccato, martellato, range extension, register mising, leaps, recescendo/decrescendo, flexibility, vowel modification and intonation.
Songlist: Step-by-step instruction for planning warm-ups for choirs at any level., Specialized exercises for children's choirs, Demonstrations of children's singing , Relaxation, Posture, Breathing, Exhalation, Inhalation, Resonance, Legato, Staccato, Range Extension, Register Mixing, Vowel Modification, Intonation
Howard Austin : ABCs of Vocal Harmony
Review: No prior music knowledge required. Nuts and bolts music theory course with hundreds of ear-training exercises.Here's a course that will sharpen your sense of pitch and enable you to sing harmony with the best professionals. Includes sing-a-long exercises where you fill in the missing note in an interval or chord. Topics included are: Scales - major, minor, blues, pentatonic, chromatic, whole tone, and modes; Intervals - all intervals are included in this section; Chords - major, minor, diminished, augmented, 7th chords, dominant, add 9 chords, 6th chords; Rhythm & Meter - time signatures, simple rhythms, dotted rhythms, triplets, syncopation; Charts & Transpositions.. Unique feature: how to harmonize with other singers. You'll hear a well trained duo who sing two notes and then ask you to add the third note. Slowly, your note fades to test your pitch. Great training for a any harmony group singer.
Songlist: Scales, Intervals, Chords, Rhythm/Meter, Charts, transposing, finding your key, Key Signatures, Glossary of Musical Terms
James Jordan : Group Vocal Technique
Review: This DVD is designed to provide a comprehensive and practical approach for providing vocal technique training to the amateur choir. It provides a valuable resource for both amateur and professional conductors and choral technique classes. The DVD contains group vocal exercises performed by various choirs. Frauke Hasseman is a Professor of Conducting at Westminster Choir College in Princeton, New Jersey. She is recognized as one of the world's experts in the field of Group Vocal Technique. James M. Jordan is Associate professor of Conducting at the Westminster Choir College in Princeton, New Jersey. He is conductor of the Westminster Chapel Choir.
Songlist: Relaxation, Posture, Breathing, Resonance and Placement, Dynamics, Cresendo / Decrescendo, Register Consistancy, Expanding the Vocal Tract, Range Extension, Flexibility, Execution of Leaps, Legato, Staccato, Martellato, Diction, Vowel Modification
Jamie Dailey & Darrin Vincent : Bluegrass and Gospel Quartet Singing
Review: Dailey & Vincent's award-winning recordings and live performances have become legendary for, among other things, their thrilling harmony singing. Jamie and Darrin's duets are impeccable, and the band's four-part gospel and bluegrass vocal arrangements are absolute show-stoppers. This informative and musically rich DVD lesson will help you understand the musical thinking behind Dailey & Vincent's electrifying performances, and will give you the tools to make your own vocal arrangements with your band, church group or musical friends.Jamie and Darrin are joined by two members of their outstanding touring and recording band, Jeff Parker and Christian Davis. The four singers break down their parts so that aspiring singers will begin to understand how they put together their rich harmonies. This DVD is entertaining as well as informative. Each of the songs is sung in an informal but impeccable performance before Jamie, Darrin, Jeff and Christian offer their musical insights and advice.
Songlist: Living in the Kingdom of God, Until at Last I'm Home, Amazing Grace, Country Roads, Flowers on the Wall, Class of '57, Moses Smote the Water
Jamie Dailey & Darrin Vincent : Old Time Country Harmony - Duet Singing
Review: Soaring harmonies, a seamless vocal blend and a singular commitment to their gospel and old time country repertoire have made Dailey and Vincent one of the most popular groups in bluegrass today. Darrin's rich, solid baritone combines with Jaime's soaring tenor to make every song a thrilling occasion for the listener. Now you can sing with these amazing musicians as they perform anmd demonstrate and analyze some of their most popular music. Jamie and Darin share their ideas on harmony singing and describe how they come up with their spine-tingling vocal parts. They also invite you to join in with them to practice singing a lead or harmony part.
Songlist: Will You Be There Waiting Fo Me?, Background and Overview, Chest, Middle and Head Vopice, Can You Hear Me Now - Performance, Can You Hear Me Now - Broken Down, Blending Diction and Phrasing, More Than A Name on the Wall, Music of the Monutains, Singing Octaves, Call and Response, Parts Demonstrated, Rock of Ages, By The Mark, Waves of Sorrow, Using Dynamics and Other Vocal Tips, Don't You Call My Name
Jan Hall and Shelly Nordlund : Voices In Harmony (Orff Collection)
Review: Arrangements for Children's Voices and Orff Instruments by Shelley Nordlund and Jan Hall. 'Voices in Harmony' is a collection of 12 delightful songs for young voices and accompanying Orff instruments that encourage success-oriented experiences with beginning part singing. These 'kid-tested' arrangements are suitable for singers as young as 2nd/3rd grade through upper elementary / middle school. Whether you are a beginner or a veteran Orff instructor, this collection gives you all the necessary conceptual information to present each song, along with a sequential teaching process to help you present each lesson easily and effectively. Available: Song Collection. For Gr. 3-8.
Songlist: Coffee, Come Join Our Singing, Fanfare For Children, Good News, I'm Gonna Sing When The Spirit Says Sing, Loose Tooth, Oh Won't You Sit Down?, One More River, Rocky Mountain High, Song On Courtship, This Old Hammer, Wake Me! Shake Me!
Jimmy Kachulis : The Songwriter's Workshop - Harmony
Review: Learn the fundamental techniques behind today's hit songs, with easy-to-follow exercises so you can immediately apply these tools to your own songs. Quit wrestling with writer's block, and learn to make the songwriting process easy, fun, and intuitive. Kachulis covers a variety of topics, including: colors of chords and keys - chord embellishments and progressions to enrich your palette of colors - dozens of ways to modify your harmonies and progressions - the most common chord progressions used in hit songs. Practice your songs with an accompaniment on the play-along CD!
Nashville Bluegrass Band : Vocal Harmony Workshop
Review: The Nashville Bluegrass Band has astonished audiences with powerful vocals and precision musicianship since 1984. Here they break down and analyze their renowned harmony singing techniques for all aspiring group vocalists. The NBB guides singers through their arrangements, from basic duets to stirring three-, four- and five-part harmonies, for old-time country, bluegrass and gospel songs. Includes music & lyrics. For all levels. 60 minutes.
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky : Guide to the Practical Study of Harmony
Review: This book, written during Tchaikovsky's years as professor at the renowned Moscow Conservatory, is a clear and thorough introduction to the study of harmony, complete with many exercises. Out of print for decades and exceedingly rare in its original edition, this volume is as useful and instructive today as when it was written, and offers any student the opportunity to learn the fundamentals of harmony from one of its greatest masters.
Songlist: The Triads of the Major Scale, The Connection of the Triads of the Major Scale, Connection of Triads, showing no External agreement , Deviations from rules governing the connection of related Triads, Harmonic Sequences, The Harmony of the Minor Scale, Open Position, The inversions of the Triad, The inversions of the Diminished and Augmented Triads, The Dominant Chord, Free Voice-Leading, The chord of the Ninth, Chords of the diminished Seventh, The Connection of dissonant Harmonies resolving into the tonic Triad, Chords of sequence in minor, The Harmonization of a given melody, Direct Modulation, Transient Modulation, Harmonization of given melodies with modulations, The enharmonic properties of the chord of the diminished Seventh, The Organ-point, Suspensions, Anticipations, Passing-notes, Chords of the augmented Fifth, Chords of the augmented Sixth, Changing-notes, Strict Part-writing, The further development of Voice-leading, Harmonic figuration, and more
Riders in The Sky : Learn To Sing Western Harmony
Review: Sing along with Riders in the Sky as they pass along a magnificent American vocal music tradition. In the lighthearted, humorous manner that has endeared them to millions of fans, the Riders show how to sing favorite cowboy, folk and country songs in beautiful three- and four-part harmony. Includes music and lyrics. 60 minutes.
Susan Anders : Harmony Singing by Ear
Review: A step by step approach to learn how to find and sing harmonies above and below a melody. Three CDs of instructional narratives and fully produced music tracks with and without guide vocals. The instructional sections walk you through how to find the upper and lower harmony parts for eight songs. Those same harmonies are sung on music tracks. Vocal coach Susan Anders has successfully used this how to harmonize method for over twenty years with pop, R&B, folk, jazz, rock and country singers. Skill Level: Beginning to Intermediate. The parts range from baritone to soprano range, but all parts can be sung an octave above or below what is on the CD to allow lower and higher singers to join in.
Songlist: Harmonizing Theory, Parallel 2 and 3-Part Harmonies, Finding the Upper Harmony, Finding the Upper Upper Harmony, Finding the Lower Harmony, Call-response Harmonies, Blue Note Harmonies, Block Chord Harmonies, Chromatic Harmonies, Polishing Your Harmony Part, Supplementary Exercises, Songs: Chapel of Love, Sweet Dreams, I Can See Clearly Now, Angel From Montgomery, Centerpiece, Bring It On Home To Me, One of Us, Walk Away Renee
Susan Anders : More Harmony Singing By Ear
Review: The follow-up to Susan Anders' popular Harmony Singing by Ear uses the same effective method with seven new harmony songs and accompanying teaching segments. Singers who have used Harmony Singing by Ear as well as singers with beginning harmonizing skills can deepen their harmonizing ability with this new set of songs and harmony instruction. One, two or more singers can learn two and three-part harmony singing above and below a melody. More Harmony Singing by Ear includes:Three CDs with nearly four hours of instructional narration and fully produced music tracks. Music tracks with and without guide vocals. The music-only tracks can be used for rehearsal and performances. Seven pop, rock, and jazz songs; six songs arranged for 3 part harmony, one for 2 part harmony.
Songlist: Lean On Me, Proud Mary, It Doesn't Matter Anymore, Teach Your Children, Gone Gone Gone (Done Moved On), Baby, Baby All the Time, Drive My Car
Timothy Seelig : The Perfect Blend
Review: It will make you think. It will make you laugh. It may change the way you approach your job as a choral director. The Perfect Blend provides an entertaining, yet practical approach to the voice and to the choir. Over 100 exercises, including photos to explain them, rehearsal and programming tips, vocal health and the aging voice, plus "things they didn't teach you in school." It all adds up to the perfect blend for any choral director. This 2 Hour DVD features the Turtle Creek Chorale and One Achord, of the TCC.
Songlist: Appetizer: Posture, Soup: Breathing, Salad: Phonation, Entree: Resonance, Dessert: Blend, See Actual Vocal Folds in Action, The Things They Didn't Teach You In School, The Quest Unending (Performance by Turtle Creek Chorale), Mary Sat a Rockin' (Performance by Turtle Creek Chorale)
Weston Noble : Achieving Choral Blend Through Standing Position
Review: For over fifty years, Weston Noble has lectured on his principles of choral blend that can be achieved through a process of matching voices to create beautiful, almost seamless choral sound. On this DVD, Weston Noble presents through lecture and demonstraton the principles he has used with the Luther College Nordic Choir. Thousands have benefited from this lecture over the years. Now for the first time, Weston Noble's lecture has been recorded for choral conductors to study and analyze so they can apply these principles to their choral ensemble, regardless of experience. By using the principles presented, not only will the sound of the choirs improve, but conductors will also realize an immediate improvement in intonation and rhythmic clarity in their ensembles. In addition to the principles Weston Noble has used to achieve optimum standing of his singers, he discusses the following important issues: - beginnings and history of his experimentation with standing arrangements - Robert Shaw's use of this system (rather than "quartet standing") for creating vertical sound columns in the choir -mimimizing vibrato in choirs using effective standing procedures - improving the singers' ability to hear each other - use of "altos in front" choral arrangement to vastly improve intonation - use of the "flip-flop" to achieve different choral colors.